Origin and nationality of the Cretans

The ancient poet Homer in the epic “Iliad” reports that in the “Trojan War” all cities of Crete: Knossos, Gortyna, Lyktos or Lyttos, Lykastos etc. fought on the side of the Achaeans or Argoeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes and the leader of all men from the Cretan cities, that is (all men of Knossos, Gortyna, etc.) or the leader of all nations (city-states) that existed in Crete (= Eteocretans, Kydonians, Achaeans, Pelasgeans and Dorians) was Idomeneas, who was the grandson of Minoas and also one of the top leaders of all Achaeans or Argoeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes: "with Nestor, the magnificent old man of the Panachaeans being the first and followed by Idomeneas..." (Iliad, B 402 - 405).

Therefore, Minoas and the residents of Crete during his reign (Kydonians, Eteocretans, Achaeans, etc.) were Greeks/Hellenes, part of the Panhellenes.

In addition, the ancient writers clearly report that the Minoans were Greeks, " The first residents of Karpathos were those that campaigned with Minoas, during the period in which he became the first Greek maritime “sea-governor”, (Diodoros Sikeliotis, 5, 54).

Specifically, according to the ancient writers and historians: Pafsanias (Solar, 1 - 10, Arcadian 8, 3), Thucydides (A, 3 -9), Diodoros (Book 4 and 5), Stravon (Geographics I = 10), Herodotus (Z, 169 - 171), Isocrates (Panathinaikos) and others:

1. Crete was initially inhabited by the so called Idaiae Daktylae or Kouretaes (or Eteocretans in contrast to the Epilydaes, as it will become evident below), and for this reason they were called native (endemic) Cretans. They came to the island from Frygia (=Troy in Asia Minor) and reciprocally from Crete some Cretans went to Frygja (Troy) and for this reason, it is said that, there is a mountain range named "Idae or Idaiae mountains" in Crete and also in Frygja (Troy).

2. Simultaneously with the Idaiae Daktylae or shortly thereafter came to Crete from Arkadia, Peloponnesus (and thus Gortyna of Peloponnesus and Crete) the so called "Kydonians" and for that reason they were also called natives. The cities Kydonia (and thus the name Kydonians), Gortyna and others of Crete and which, according to Plato and Pafsanias were built by the sons of Tegeat Lykaona from Arkadia of Gortynia in Peloponnesus (and that is precisely so, because it is also depicted in the ancient currencies of these cities).

3. Several generations later, and specifically when Cretheas was king of the Eteocretans, certain sects (races) of Achaeans, Pelasgeans and Dorians under the leadership of Tektamos or Tektafos (the son of Doros who was the son of Hellene and Minoa’s grandfather) left from the Pelasgean Argos (=Thessaly in central mainland Greece) and after several adventurous roamings and expeditions arrived in Crete, which had meanwhile suffered huge desolation, settling on the eastern part of the island. The Dorians settled in the eastern part, the Kydonians in the western, the Eteocretans in the southern part and the remaining others in the interior of the island. The new inhabitants of Crete were named "Epilydes" (= epekae, immigrants in contrast to the local inhabitants) and the old "Eteocretans" (= first settlers and therefore genuine, local, endemic).

4. Upon Tektamo’s death, on the throne of the ‘Epilydes Cretans Kingdom’ ascended his son Asterios, who because his wife gave birth to a son separated from her and abducted from the seashores of Phoenicia the daughter of the Phoenician King Agenor of Tyre, the beautiful Europa, who is also mentioned as one of the causes of the “Trojan War”. When Asterios died, his sons Minoas and Sarpidonas quarreled and fought each other as to who will ascend to the kingdom. Minoas won and Sarpidonas with his mutineers having been defeated and chased out of the island by Minoas took refuge in Lykia, Asia Minor and there he built the city Myletos in remembrance of the Cretan city Myletos.

According to the Pario Chronicle, Minoas reigned until 1470 B.C., and with the help of his brother Radamanthys, unified and united into a single comprehensive system (in a highly unique way, the institutions of the State for this particular period of time, as we will see below) the natives (Eteocretans and Kydonaeans) with the Epilydes (Achaeans, Pelasgeans and Dorians) Cretans and designating Knossos as the governing city ‘Capital’ (the seat of the in common king of the united Cretan cities).

During this period of time Minoas with the help of his brother Radamanthys conceived, designed, organized and created for the first time in world history a maritime martial navy, which he used to drive away from the islands of the Aegean (Cyclades, etc.) the criminal elements and pirates (Kares and Phoenicians) who resided there, and inhabits these islands with permanent settlers that he brought from Crete. Up to that point in time neither marine shipping nor agriculture were known nor had been developed for use, and consequently most of the islands of the Aegean were poor and did not have the capability or means to support permanent residents other than renegades and criminals (mainly pirates). As a result of the maritime martial navy constituted by Mjnoas, he was able to both, become a maritime power and free-up (open-up) the marine corridors, and thus enable the Greeks to commute freely amongst themselves, deal with and practice marine work and related tasks, prosper and gain wealth, establish cities (permanent residence which before could not be created due to the criminal activities of the thieves, renegades and pirates who lived there, such as the Kares, Phoenicians, etc.).

Additionally, because of the newly developed marine capabilities, Minoas was able to establish Cretan (and subsequently Greek) colonies in Sicily, the sea coast of Asia Minor, etc. For all of the above reasons Minoas and Radamanthys were deified, that is to say, after their death they were declared semi gods, sons of god Zeus and judges at Hades (the underworld of the Greeks), something similar to Great Constantine, Apostle Peter, Alexander the Great, etc.

5. Three generations after the death of Minoas the ‘Trojan War’ started (the grandson of Minoas, Idomeneas took part in it). In this war (according to the Pario Chronicle 1228 - 1218 B.C), Cretans, natives and Epilydes, under the leadership of Idomeneas, the grandson of Minoas and one of the largest naval fleets ever assembled in history fought on the side of the Argoeans or Achaeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes and for that reason they were named (the natives: Eteocretans and Kydonians and Epilydes: Achaeans, Dorians and Pelasgoeans) after the end of the war Greeks/Hellenes.


1) When the Epilydes Cretans (=Achaeans, Dorians and Pelasgoeans of Crete) went to the island and found there the natives (= the Kydonians and the Eteocretans or idaiae Daktylae or Kourites) the differentiation of the terms "Greek" and "barbarian" did not yet exist, since that terminology occurred after the “Trojan War”.

Thucydides (A, 3 - 9) and many other ancient writers report that before the “Trojan War” the differentiation of “Greeks”’ and “barbarians” did not exist. After the end of the war "Greek" were named all those who participated in the “Trojan War” campaign and "barbarian" those who allied with Troy, and through that action they became another reason or cause for the war.

2) Clearly the Eteocretans and Kydonians racially were the same with the Dorians, Achaeans and Pelasgoeans, and all were part of the Panhellenes and concretely of Pelasgoean origin. Simply stated, the Eteocretans and Kydonians were natives of Crete and the others were not, they came to Crete from Thessaly. That is to say, here we have a similarity to what had also occurred with the Spartans (who were Epilydes, had come to Peloponnesus from Sterea Hellas) and the Arcadians (who were natives of Peloponnesus), and both were Greeks/Hellenes.


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